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By Impact Investing

What’s Behind the Growth of Impact Investing

The Rockefeller Foundation coined the term “impact investing” at a 2007 meeting of investors, entrepreneurs, and philanthropists in Bellagio, Italy. Fast forward two decades and we’ve seen demand for sustainable impact investments grow exponentially

Impact investing refers to investments that generate a measurable social or environmental impact along with a financial return. Over the years, there’s been a movement from “negative screening” of investments (avoiding investments in industries related to alcohol, guns, oil, gas, etc.) to investing based on environmental, sustainable, and governance objectives (ESG) to even more direct impact investing. 

Impact investing is attracting new investors and stakeholders, improving and standardizing data and measurement, all while achieving market-rate financial returns. According to the most recent US SIF Foundation Report on U.S. Sustainable, Responsible, and Impact Investing Trends, sustainable, responsible, and impact investing (SRI) assets now account for one in four dollars in total assets under professional management in the United States.

Why impact investments are on the rise

Before 2019, asset flows into sustainable funds had never risen above $2 billion in a single quarter. Morningstar reported that sustainable funds attracted an estimated $8 billion in net flows in the first half of 2019, vastly surpassing the $5.5 billion for all of 2018.

The impact investing market is rapidly growing because it is:  

  • Attracting individual and institutional investors 

Nearly 80 percent of respondents to a recent ESG Investor Sentiment Study from Allianz Life Insurance Company of North America said that they “love the idea of investing in companies that care about the same issues” as them. 

More individual investors are interested in impact investments, especially millennials and women. According to Accenture and the Internal Finance Corporation (IFC), in the next three decades, $40 trillion in wealth will transfer to women and millennials, populations that have shown strong interest in aligning their investments with their values. 

The Global Impact Investing Network (GIIN) has reported that over one-third of organizations that manage conventional investments, such as Morgan Stanley and private equity firms, are now making impact investments. Several foundations are also making significant impact investments, including the Ford Foundation and the Michael and Susan Dell Foundation. 

  • Standardizing impact measurement and management (IMM)

Although no single impact measurement has achieved mass adoption, the expanding availability of frameworks has given investors more reliable ways to gauge impact. Among the latest methodologies is the Rise Fund’s impact multiple of money that is built around calculating impact in dollars and managed by TPG Capital, one of the largest private equity giants. 

IRIS (Impact Reporting and Investment Standards) from The GIIN serves as the impact industry’s set of terms with standardized definitions that govern the way companies, investors, and others define their social and environmental performance.

Investor reviewing investments on iPad

Technology has also allowed greater ties between investment management and social and environmental impact. Technology platforms such as CNote are making it easier for individual investors to get started investing in funds that used to exclusively be accessible by  institutional investors, like Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs). 

  • Achieving comparable returns to traditional investments 

Impact investing has performed well when compared to traditional strategies. A study by Morgan Stanley found that sustainable investments achieve comparable returns with less volatility in contrast to traditional investment products.

A meta-analysis of more than 2,000 studies compared the relationship between ESG and corporate financial performance (CFP) since the 1970s. It determined that “roughly 90 percent of studies find a nonnegative ESG–CFP relation,” with the large majority reporting positive findings.

A 2017 GIIN study that reviewed over 200 impact investors who committed billions to impact investing in 2016, found that about 91% reported that their impact investments were meeting or exceeding their financial expectations. About 66% stated that they were making market-rate returns on their impact investments. 

3 trends supercharging the growth of impact investing

Three emerging trends in the impact investing industry have tremendous disruptive potential according to Antony Bugg-Levine, the previous managing director at the Rockefeller Foundation:

  1. The current urgent need to address social issues;
  2. an increased interest in impact investing, especially among young people, and; 
  3. structural changes within the investment industry. 

All these trends represent important paradigm shifts that are driving the growth of impact investing. 

Barriers are being broken down in public and private capital markets, promoting collaboration and engaging new investors. Meanwhile, there are more advocates for a policy environment that enables the impact investing industry to mature and grow.

How the growth of impact investing benefits us all 

The concept of impact investing as we know it now emerged in the early 2000s as investors saw the potential to receive market-rate financial returns in the global capital markets, while doing good for society. 

Investors began to consider not just investing to avoid certain negative social or environmental factors (negative screening,) but instead to purposefully choose investments that could create more social or environmental benefits. 

Today, with the global challenges facing our planet, such as climate change, inequality and social division, there’s an urgent need for impact investing to become a fundamental part of all investment decisions. Traditional sources of capital, like government aid and philanthropy aren’t enough to effect change, given the scale of the problems the world faces.

Impact investing supports a more inclusive and sustainable financial system that balances the needs of shareholders with those of stakeholders. Impact investments can also help drive the transition to clean energy, improve education, and foster innovative technology solutions to alleviate poverty and inequality.    

Why the future of investing is impact investing

Over the last twenty years, the impact investing industry has achieved incredible growth and captured the interest of mainstream investors. In the future, it will become increasingly impractical to make investment decisions without regard for the impact on society and the planet. 

As impact investing continues to gain momentum among many types of investors, better tools are being developed to help investment professionals understand their clients’ impact goals, and measure and report on the actual impact achieved. The demand for impact investing products is also increasing as fund managers, wealth advisors see the value in providing them. 

There are also groups who have evaluated and compiled impact investments into databases so investors can easily find companies and funds that match their values, including T100, ImpactAssets50, and US SIF Sustainable, Responsible and Impact Mutual Fund and ETF Chart.  

According to the GIIN’s 2019 Annual Impact Investor Survey, the responses from organizations forecast strong future growth. In 2018, these organizations invested over 33 billion into more than 13,000 impact investments. These same organizations planned to invest over 37 billion into more than 15,000 investments during 2019. This indicates 13% project growth in the volume of capital invested and 14% growth in the number of investments.  

Impact investors are also committed to further developing the industry. Most view the impact industry as having a key role in supporting important changes in investment practice, including integrating impact considerations into all investing decisions.   

Conclusion

Not only impact investors, but many across the public and private sectors are striving towards a world where investor mindsets and conventional financial markets are fundamentally reshaped by impact investing. The progress the world needs on intense global challenges like climate change and ever-widening inequality is demanding it.    

Restricted access to wealth in a wallet
By Equality

Wealth Inequality: The Secret Cost of Unequal Access to Credit

America, “the land of equal opportunity”, isn’t delivering on its promise for the 90 percent that find themselves on the wrong side of the ever-widening wealth gap. In fact, the United States has a level of wealth inequality between the rich and poor that is larger than any other major developed country. According to the National Bureau of Economic Research, the richest 5 percent of Americans own two-thirds of the wealth in the nation

While there are many reasons for this divide, one of the key contributors is unequal access to credit and other mainstream financial products and services. Unlike the top one percent who invest their wealth in stocks and mutual funds, homeownership is the main source of wealth for 90 percent of Americans. This is also the asset type that suffered the biggest setback during the Great Recession of 2008. 

Financing for homeownership

Financing for homeownership.

For those who find themselves locked out of being able to access credit, getting a mortgage to buy a home seems like an impossible feat. This most often hits low-income communities the hardest, as many have historically been discriminated against through unfair practices like redlining, which despite efforts to halt still exists in some form today

The lack of access to credit also negatively affects Main Street America because, without business loans, many small business owners struggle to grow their companies. For minority- and women-owned businesses (MWBEs or WMBEs) this can be catastrophic because investment in MWBEs is 80 percent lower than the average investment in businesses overall.        

Not only are working and middle-class American households severely impacted by unequal access to credit, but these negative effects trickle down into their communities and the country as a whole by stifling productivity and innovation while continuing to increase wealth inequality.    

The challenge of accessing credit for lower-income households  

In a 2017 survey by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, over 8 million households were found to be unbanked. And 80.2 percent of unbanked households had no access to mainstream credit. The survey also found that lower-income, less educated, black and Hispanic, working-age, disabled, and foreign-born, noncitizen households were more likely to not have access to mainstream credit. Differences in credit access by income, education, race, and ethnicity were the most striking, with the youngest households (aged 15 to 24 years) following close behind.   

Without access to traditional banking products like savings accounts, many of these households are one paycheck away from financial ruin. Seemingly minor financial rules about fees, fines, interest rates, and minimum balances made in the boardrooms of banks and other companies make life much more difficult for low-income families. These practices often force families to rely on alternative financial services such as payday lenders, check cashing services, pawnshop loans, and auto title loans that charge extremely high-interest rates. This exacerbates the wealth gap by keeping borrowers stuck in a cycle of crushing debt.   

While some may argue that the deregulation of these alternative financial industries is the solution, in reality reducing barriers to economic inclusion is the only way forward for households unable to access mainstream credit products and services. According to a recent article by the Brookings Institute, “Economies that extend opportunity widely not only maximize their productive potential but also minimize the fiscal and social costs of exclusion. These costs are significant.” 

The author, Joseph Parilla states that “Childhood poverty—one outcome of insufficiently inclusive growth—costs the U.S. economy an estimated $500 billion a year, or four percent of GDP, due to lost productivity, higher crime and incarceration, and larger health expenditures. Cities end up bearing these costs, at the expense of other important investments in growth and opportunity. The final cost of unequal opportunity gets beyond the numbers. Inequality of opportunity provokes hostilities that fray social and political cohesion and good governance, which affects economic growth.” 

Why lack of credit access curbs small business and community development

Small businesses rely on access to credit as much as American households. In fact, access to credit is so essential to businesses that a government agency called the U.S. Small Business Association is dedicated to “connecting entrepreneurs with lenders and funding to help them plan, start and grow their business.”    

Coastal Enterprises, Inc. (CEI), an SBA 7(a) lender has financed 2,555 businesses for over $1 billion in Maine and other rural areas across the nation. Betsy Biemann, CEO says, “These are businesses that often would have trouble accessing traditional capital from traditional lenders.”

Many small businesses depend on credit access for startup costs, capital improvements, and to meet everyday expenses like payroll. While it’s easier for larger companies to attract lenders, for small businesses, lack of credit can cause them to close their doors forever. 

Howard Schultz, Starbucks CEO who is credited with transforming the coffee giant from a regional company into a top global brand has stated that “the lifeblood of job creation in America is small business, but they can’t get access to credit.”

With a less stable job market, many more millennials are also becoming entrepreneurs than previous generations. According to a recent study by America’s SBDC, 62 percent of millennials have a dream business they would love to start while nearly half reported that access to capital is the biggest barrier to starting a business.    

How unequal access to credit threatens the US economy 

Despite the expansion of the United States’ economic power throughout the past century, the growth in household wealth outside of high earners has not been inclusive. In 2016, white households had more than ten times the wealth of black families according to economic research by McKinsey.  

The racial wealth gap alone constrains the entire U.S. economy. McKinsey estimates that “its dampening effect on consumption and investment will cost the US economy between $1 trillion and $1.5 trillion between 2019 and 2028—4 to 6 percent of the projected GDP in 2028.” 

Black families still must contend with systemic discrimination, poverty, and a lack of social connections in the effort to build wealth. The National Fair Housing Alliance (NFHA) is a trade association that works to eliminate housing discrimination and to address the lack of access to credit that severely limits the accumulation of wealth for people of color.  

In tandem with practices like redlining, housing policies were established from the inception of this nation that “were expressly designed to assist whites in gaining land and homeownership rights while simultaneously denying people of color the same opportunities” states the NFHA.

The shocking millennial wealth gap

Millennials have the undesirable distinction of being the first generation to accumulate less wealth than previous generations. The Federal Reserve report, “Are Millennials Different?,” disclosed that Millennials have “lower earnings, fewer assets and less wealth” than previous generations at the same age. The Federal Reserve’s Survey of Consumer Finances also reported that despite making up about a quarter of the population, millennials own only 3% of the country’s wealth. 

This is due in part to coming of age in the job market during the financial crisis of the Great Recession. During this time, the labor market was at historically weak levels and credit conditions were unusually tight. Also, increased higher education and health costs contributed to millennials carrying greater levels of debt and having far less money to spend. And even when working full-time hours, millennials can’t afford to buy homes according to a 2017 National Housing Survey by Fannie Mae. 

Restricted access to wealth in a walletThe impact of restricted credit access and lack of economic inclusion among racial and generational lines is having a ripple down effect on the U.S. economy that is maintaining a persistent and widening wealth gap for the majority of Americans. And when the gender pay gap, education level, immigration status, disability, and other factors are added to this as well, addressing wealth inequality and credit access is even more critical.   

What’s the way forward to improving access to credit? 

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) estimates that “26 million Americans can be classified as credit invisible and 19 million have a credit history that is insufficient to produce a credit score.” CFPB is urging lenders to deploy innovative ways of increasing access to credit. Upstart Network is a nonbank lender that deployed a machine learning model to improve access to credit that abides by fair lending practices. 

Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) reforms that include the expansion of CRA credit to banks that work with Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) have also been proposed. This would modernize the current rules to require banks to lend and invest in all regions where they receive significant deposits, also taking into account internet banks that have only one physical branch. Although, some community groups and low-income advocacy associations have voiced concerns about these changes placing an emphasis on the dollar amount of CRA projects that would lead to receiving less capital from bank partners.

Using alternative credit data to support those who are underbanked and have limited access to credit is another possible solution. Alternative credit scoring models take into account a broader range of criteria than current models that require an individual to have at least one active credit account that displays activity for over six months. The latest FICO 9 score model excludes paid and unpaid medical debt from credit scores and a new credit scoring model from VantageScore ignores accounts referred to collection agencies that have been paid off.   

Fintech startups are also innovating financial services and banking as millennials adopt new investment vehicles like cryptocurrency, point-of-sale lending alternatives, digital-first banks like Simple and Chime, AI-based budgeting and expense monitoring, robo advisors, micro-investing apps like Acorn and Stash, and virtual credit cards. Impact investing is also increasingly popular among millennials who have a strong interest in investing in small business.

Smartphone apps allow people to invest from their fingertips.

Smartphone apps allow people to invest and manage accounts from their fingertips.

SBA and first-time home buyer loans along with other government programs can assist in paving the way for opening up opportunities to grow wealth for more Americans. Ultimately, many essential reforms are needed within the financial, housing, employment, healthcare and many other sectors of America’s infrastructure to achieve lasting change. 

Six essential policy solutions have been pinpointed by the HAAS Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society for reversing inequality, closing the wealth gap and expanding economic inclusion. Access to fair, low-cost financial services and increasing homeownership is listed as crucial for building American households’ wealth. 

Conclusion

An important part of financial health is building assets to generate wealth. Historically, the working and middle class in the U.S. have grown wealth through homeownership and creating small businesses. The wealth gap grows when only some populations in the U.S. are able to access credit and the mainstream financial products that are oftentimes necessary to do so.

The Federal Reserve Bank of New York developed The Credit Insecurity Index to collect various Community Credit indicators to understand the impact of credit constraints on U.S. communities. Through their research, they found that communities with more access to credit are better off than communities with less access, as they are able to strive for upward economic mobility and weather unexpected financial hardships such as the subprime mortgage crisis that happened during the Great Recession.     

Woman holding a protest sign for change.

Woman holding a protest sign for change.

Without far-reaching, structural reforms to our society, the deep and persistent wealth gap in America cannot be bridged. Public policies such as redlining and housing and wage discrimination have suppressed the wealth of many generations of women and people of color. To ensure subsequent generations have a better chance of building wealth, expanding economic inclusion is imperative. This, in turn, supports the closing of the wealth gap, and the growth and stability of all communities, the country, and even our planet. 

Looking to support increased access to financial resources in underserved communities? CNote recently launched The Promise Account for foundations and other institutional investors that provides capital to financially vulnerable communities and is optimized for returns, insurance, and impact. Every dollar invested in our platform goes towards funding MWBEs, affordable housing, and economic development. 

By Impact Investing

List of 2020 Institutional Impact Investing Conferences

We’ve rounded up some of the largest Impact Investing events around the United States for institutions and those in financial services that are interested in learning more about effecting change with their dollars. These events afford great opportunities to learn from and collaborate with like-minded investors in an inspiring setting. We hope to see you there!

January

Join the Impact Finance Center and TechSoup for an evening of conversation and networking and learn how impact investing can help corporate social responsibility leaders better support their communities through innovative finance models.

 

February

Investing for Impact ‘2020 vision’ will explore how after years of advocacy to become mainstream, the impact investment community now faces a different challenge: as more institutions and actors pile in, there is a growing fog and confusion about what impact investing really means, and how it intersects and overlaps with other linked domains like sustainable finance. Network with more than 200 leading financiers, institutional investors, policymakers, academics, impact investors and philanthropists.

As we look toward a climate-impacted future and the social, political, and financial challenges we face over this next decade, we must move beyond dialogue to tangible action. The 2020 Gathering will be pivotal. For this special Gathering, we will host day-long field trips and a track of outdoor sessions to indulge in deeper strategic engagement. The Gathering will be organized in a retreat-style format to foster more connection and real outcomes.

The Summit is an exclusive gathering of 450+ leading next-gen philanthropists, impact investors, and social innovators that will convene to discuss key issues facing our country including opportunity zones, climate solutions, blockchain, immigration, impact investing, family prosperity, smart cities, public-private partnerships, philanthropy & natural disasters, wellness/bio-hacking, future of work, film & media for change, gender equity, conscious parenting, justice & equality, sports for good, education, human trafficking, refugees, music & arts for impact, indigenous rights and more.

 

March

Attendees can expect to gain perspective on how leading institutional investors view alternatives, hear from industry experts about the regions and investment sectors to watch in 2020, take away insights on successful strategies for fundraising, deal sourcing, portfolio management, firm management, exits, and more. Participants will have the opportunity to engage in forward-thinking discussions focused on issues of intellectual business interest. In short, Summit participants are successful women from across the spectrum who want to see other women succeed, who have profound industry experience and information to share, unique stories to tell and lessons to teach.

At “Building What’s Missing” the 24th annual Berkeley Haas Women in Leadership Conference, we are highlighting stories of people and organizations that have identified gaps when it comes to gender equity and are doing the hard work to build what is missing. We will hear and share stories about how women and allies can create impact at any level, starting with ourselves, to our organizations, to our broader society.

Join influential stakeholders from Federations and private foundations—representing collectively over $80 billion in Jewish communal philanthropic assets—for informative presentations by top industry professionals, informal peer-to-peer learning, and networking. Enhance your ability to make prudent investment decisions and position your Jewish Federation, community or private foundation as the preeminent steward of endowed funds.

Opal Group is happy to announce its 5th annual Impact Investing Forum. Today, we see an increase in companies proving that mission-driven and communication-based strategy, can attract value-based workforce, investor base, and like-minded consumer. Impact investing strategies are also proving to be able to generate returns in line with their traditional counterparts. Themes of defining impact investing, portfolio construction, asset class opportunities, and the role of the investor are just a few of the stimulating topics to be covered at this event.

Impact Capitalism Summits offer a curated, thought-provoking, and actionable agenda designed to facilitate peer-to-peer learning and encourage collaboration in a unique environment that captures the imagination and inspires participation. Participants hear from prominent family offices, institutional investors, and influential foundations about what is driving their impact investment decision-making

 

April

The Women in the World Summit, presents powerful new female role models whose personal stories illuminate the most pressing international issues. They range from CEOs and world leaders to artists, activists, peacemakers, and firebrand dissidents. The Summit’s vivid journalistic narratives, high-impact video, and fast-paced staging have made it the premier platform to showcase women of impact. Increasingly, Women in the World also includes the participation, onstage and in the audience, of men who champion women. The 2020 Summit is generously supported by leadership sponsors Boston Consulting Group, Mastercard, P&G, The Rockefeller Foundation and UBS; supporting sponsors AARPFord Foundation, Thomson Reuters, Walton Family Foundation.

 

Designed as an immersive experience for all professionals within the community foundation field, the CFUnited 2020 conference creates the space to dig into the unique role you and your organization play in harnessing the power of place. The goal of the conference is to provide an experience for community foundation professionals where we are both encouraging and facilitating dialogue amongst peers that enables you to innovate, lead, collaborate and engage. The conference will address a myriad of topics within the theme of power of place, all of which will provide practical support for you and your foundation to drive operational excellence within today’s rapidly evolving community.

 

Invest In Women 2020 is the leading forum nationwide to explore, discuss and learn about issues that are meaningful for women financial advisors and female clients. Both male and female advisors are invited to this event that promises insight and networking to help practices grow. Take the opportunity to be inspired — and have fun — at a conference you won’t want to miss.

 

May

The Inclusiv Annual Conference is the largest gathering of credit unions with a mission of financial inclusion in the country, with plenaries and sessions that focus on innovative products and services for empowering low-income consumers.

 

When EMERGE launched 15 years ago, improving financial health for all was the dream of a few bold thinkers. Fast forward to today, and leaders across industries and sectors are embracing financial health as a new opportunity to better serve their customers, employees, and communities. As we reflect on the organizations and innovators who have helped develop best practices for financial health, we also look ahead to the trends and tools that will move us closer to financial security for all.

 

Foundations are making unprecedented commitments to impact investing, putting more of their capital to work to challenge inequity, stem climate change, and drive other social and environmental impact. As the field continues to rapidly grow, what will it take to ensure that the impact investing movement remains laser-focused on impact? We look forward to tackling these issues with you at our upcoming National Conference — Amplifying Impact. As a Conference led by and for foundations and their partners, Amplifying Impact will explore the unique leadership role of philanthropy, focusing on our four Conference themes:

 

The Global Private Equity Conference (GPEC) is the world’s leading event dedicated to exploring private investment opportunities across emerging and frontier markets, convening over 900 industry professionals from more than 70 countries annually. The conference brings together practitioners from a broad array of institutions—from family offices, endowments, pensions, sovereign wealth funds, experienced fund managers and new investment teams to private equity consultants and advisors, academia, multilateral organizations and governments—for thought-provoking discussions, debates and networking opportunities organized around topics and themes that are top-of-mind for today’s finance and industry leaders.

 

True long-term investing, like the type of institutional asset allocators, requires many different value considerations when it comes to risk and return. ESG investing has been positioning itself as a way for investors to mitigate risks and still generate returns that meet fiduciary obligations in the long term. The conversation around ESG has reached the “how-to” phase as strategies abound, and many allocators are starting to approach this space for the first time or refine their existing practice. Join your institutional peers to discuss how to best utilize an ESG strategy to attain investment goals.

 

In its third year, Total Impact Philadelphia will convene investment advisors, and investors who want to gain actionable and executable information on impact investment across asset classes. In addition, in partnership with key Philadelphia stakeholders, we will highlight place-based opportunities and the impact success stories of the greater Philadelphia area.

 

June

This annual conference brings together leading minds to explore new legal and policy developments in the fields of social entrepreneurship and impact investing and to discuss how lawyers and the law can most effectively serve social entrepreneurs and impact investors. The conference is attended by over 400 participants from across the globe (including lawyers, academics, policymakers and other professionals working in the fields of social entrepreneurship and impact investing) for a series of panels, plenaries, discussions and workshops geared toward sharing knowledge and building a legal community of practice in these fields.

 

The Social Innovation Summit is an annual event that represents a global convening of black swans and wayward thinkers. Where most bring together luminaries to explore the next big idea, we bring together those hungry not just to talk about the next big thing, but to build it.

 

US SIF: The Forum for Sustainable and Responsible Investment is the leading voice advancing sustainable, responsible and impact investing across all asset classes. Its mission is to rapidly shift investment practices toward sustainability, focusing on long-term investment and the generation of positive social and environmental impacts.

 

The 2020 Forbes Women’s Summit brings together a community of inspiring and innovative visionaries whose ambitious actions are changing the world with unprecedented scale. Across industries and generations, the gathering spotlights how leading women are navigating monumental change to rearchitect industries, spark major movements and unlock opportunities for others. Featuring keynote conversations and dynamic panel discussions, the Forbes Women’s Summit will convene a diverse range of female luminaries from the worlds of business, media, entertainment and politics.

 

July

#ForumCon20 will bring together the leadership and staff of all PSOs working to advance, inform and support the nation’s philanthropic sector. It’s the only conference where we can delve into our unique role as CEOs and staff of regional and national PSOs, connect with others in similar roles, and explore how we can work together to increase philanthropy’s impact. The conference will be a unique opportunity to reach key decision-makers with direct access and connections to the largest and broadest range of philanthropic organizations across the country.

 

August

The CIF Leadership Summit brings together investment and financial thought-leaders to learn more about Christian Faith Driven Investing, engaging with one another in an inspiring mountain retreat setting. A collaborative experience, the Summit provides a unique platform to learn from Christian investing experts and truly grasp the available benefits for organizations, investors and their advisors.

 

September

The Philanthropy Innovation Summit is a biennial event that convenes individual and family philanthropists to discuss strategic and impactful giving in a non-solicitation environment. The 2019 event was the fourth Philanthropy Innovation Summit hosted by Stanford PACS, and included panel discussions, armchair interviews and intimate philanthropy salons.

 

October

Join 250 leading women investors in alternative debt, including direct lenders, mezzanine investors, institutional investors, company executives, private equity investors, and finance, legal, and consulting advisors for two days of networking, dealmaking, and professional development.

 

SOCAP is the largest and most diverse impact investing community in the world. We convene a global ecosystem and marketplace – social entrepreneurs, investors, foundation and nonprofit leaders, government and policy leaders, creators, corporations, academics and beyond –  through live and digital content experiences that educate, spur conversation, and inspire investment in positive impact. Our mission is to unlock the potential of markets to accelerate impact and, in pursuit of that goal, we have convened more than 20,000 people since our first event in 2008.

 

Philanthropy Southwest’s Annual Conference consistently draws several hundred trustees and staff attendees from grantmaking organizations of all types and sizes. Registration is open to trustees and staff of grantmaking organizations and provides the opportunity to connect with fellow philanthropists located or making investments in the Southwestern United States.

 

Money20/20 has always given audiences the clearest, sharpest view of the disruption agenda – it’s what’s made us the world’s most potent blend of people, tech, money and ideas. We stimulate new connections, new insight and new growth – at speed. From our starting point of payments, we bring together the money ecosystem. From in-depth analytics to inspirational speakers, our world class insight and networking opportunities help our customers stay ahead – powering strategies and relationships and switching mindsets.

 

The VERGE 20 conference and expo is the largest platform for accelerating the clean economy. Join more than 4,000 leaders — from the private and public sectors, utilities, solution providers, investors, and startups — advancing systemic solutions to address the climate crisis through five key markets: clean energy, electrified transportation, the circular economy, carbon removal and sustainable food systems.

 

November

OFN (Opportunity Finance Network) Conference brings together CDFIs and thought leaders from across the country together for one of the largest impact-centric events of the year. With more than 1,000 CDFI practitioners, funders, investors, policy makers, and other supporters in attendance, the learning, networking, and business opportunities will be incredible.

 

A conference to enhance networking, fundraising, and deal-making opportunities for senior-level women across the broad spectrum of alternative investments. Join us for informative sessions and essential networking with senior-level women in private equity and alternative investments. The highly interactive conference features moderated panel discussions, facilitated roundtable conversations, and keynote dialogues followed by discussion. The Women’s Alternative Investment Summit is unique in its commitment to helping women build networks and to promoting the advancement of women in private equity, venture capital, and alternative investing in general. 

 

Fall 2020

For 30 years, The SRI Conference has been the most important annual gathering for investors, asset owners, asset managers, financial advisors, researchers, academics, mission-driven organizations, and enterprises who share the common goal of deploying private capital to address some of our most pressing environmental, social, and economic challenges.

By Quick Tips

Impact Investing Glossary

Core Financial Terms

At times, personal finance can seem like a whirl of unfamiliar jargon. What are the distinctions between terms like ‘Impact Investing’ and ‘SRI’?

We put together this glossary of terms as a reference point for anyone who is interested in learning more about the ins and outs of finance and impact investing terms.

You can skim or jump to a specific grouping of words using the table of contents below.

Impact Investing Terms

Blended Value – This refers to the integration of social and financial returns gained through impact investments.
Clean Revenue The measure of a company’s revenue from all goods and services which have clear environmental and social benefits.

Collective Impact – Different entities coming together to help to solve a social problem through carefully considered and planned collaboration.

Community Development – The United Nations defines community development as “a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems.”

Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI) – Nonprofit private financial institutions that are solely dedicated to delivering responsible, affordable lending to help low-income, low-wealth, and other disadvantaged people and communities join the economic mainstream. These are regulated and considered tax-exempt under section 510(c)(3) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code.

Community Investment – A subcategory of SRI or impact investing aimed at the improvement of economically disadvantaged communities.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) – A form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism that governs and serves as a guide as to how a business holds itself socially responsible.

Credit Union – A nonprofit money cooperative whose members can borrow from pooled deposits at low interest rates.

Donor-Advised Fund (DAF) – A vehicle that gives donors the opportunity to contribute to a charitable organization on a tax-deductible basis, enjoy philanthropic rewards in an advisory capacity, while limiting personal administrative responsibility.

Economic Empowerment – The ability of an individual, group, or entity to make and act on decisions that involve the control over and allocation of financial resources.

Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) – Environmental, Social and Governance refers to three central factors by which a business’s positive impact can be analyzed – both internally and their affect on society.

Green Bonds – Bonds that are used to fund environmentally sustainable and beneficial projects.

Impact Investing – The Global Impact Investing Network defines impact investing as investments made into companies, organizations and funds with the intention to generate measurable social and environmental impact alongside a financial return. Impact investors actively seek to place capital in businesses and funds that can harness the positive power of enterprise.

Impact Report – A report communicating the difference made to an issue a person or group of people are trying to solve or people they are trying to help. It typically takes the form of an annual report and can be shared with investors and shareholders to illustrate the impact of investments.

Investment Thesis – This is typically used as the basis on which to analyze a potential investment. It is based upon decided criteria that is used as a guide as to whether a potential investment could obtain the desired outcomes of financial returns and targeted impact outcomes.

Low-to-Moderate Income Community (LMI) – Often used to refer to targeted investment space in impact investing that is oftentimes overlooked by traditional banks. For example, CNote and our CDFI partners look to support borrowers in LMI communities.

Microlending – A form of financing that provides small loans to typically emerging entrepreneurs to encourage self-sufficiency and economic empowerment.

Mission Related Investment (MRI) – An investment that furthers an investor’s organizational mission.

Native CDFI – Community Development Financial Institutions that work to support Native American communities throughout the United States. These communities have historically been severely underserved by traditional financial institutions. Native CDFIs are able to understand the unique issues of the communities they work in and serve.

Place-based Investing – Often associated with impact investing, place-based investing entails investing in targeted geographic locales, oftentimes looking to support those that have been underserved by traditional financial institutions.

Social Entrepreneurship – An approach by entrepreneurs (individual) or startups (group) in which they develop and execute solutions to social, cultural and/or environmental issues.

Social Finance – An approach to managing money that delivers both a social dividend and an economic return.
Social Impact Broadly speaking, social impact is the net effect of an individual’s or organization’s actions or practices on the social well-being of a community, nation, or even the planet.

Social Impact Bond (SIB) – Financing mechanism in which a government agency enters into agreements with social service providers, such as social enterprises or non-profit organizations, and investors to pay for the delivery of pre-defined social outcomes. In financial terms, SIBs are not real bonds but rather future contracts on social outcomes. They are also known as Payment-for-Success bonds in the United States.

Socially Responsible Investing (SRI Investing) – Sometimes referred to as Sustainable, Responsible, Impact Investing, SRI Investing involves investing in companies that are engaged in ethical and socially conscious fields.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) – A collection of 17 global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”. The SDGs, set forth in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and intended to be achieved by the year 2030, are part of UN Resolution 70/1, the 2030 Agenda.

 

General Finance Terms

Accredited Investor – An investor with special status under financial regulation laws. This varies by country, but in the United States, this qualifies as (but is not limited to) an individual that has earned income exceeding $200,000, or $300,000 when combined with a spouse, during each of the previous two full calendar years, and a reasonable expectation of the same for the current year. The individual must have a net worth greater than $1 million (either alone or combined with a spouse), excluding the person’s primary residence.

Asset Class – A group of financial instruments that exhibit similar characteristics and are subject to the same laws and regulations. Within a class, assets often behave similarly to one another in the marketplace

Assets – The property and resources owned by a person or company, regarded as having value and available to meet debts or commitments.

Automated Clearing House (ACH) – An electronic funds transfer system. The computerized system is designed to accept payment batches so that large numbers of payments can be made at once.

Bond – A debt instrument or loan purchased by an investor from a company or government with an agreement to be paid back their principal with interest.

Cash and Cash Equivalents – The most liquid current assets. They are typically used for short-term investments.

Certificate of Deposit (CD) – A certificate issued by a bank to a person depositing money for a specified length of time. A CD typically offers an interest rate that can be earned with the agreement that the money is left for a specified amount of time.

Crowdfunding – A form of alternative financing where small amounts of money are raised from a large group of people. Crowdsourced funds have become more popular than ever in recent years, partially due to the rise of social media.

Current Assets – Cash, accounts receivable, and other assets that are likely to be converted into cash or expensed in the normal course of business, typically within a year.

Current Liabilities – Debt or other obligations due to be paid to creditors within the current period, which is typically a year.

Current Ratio – Current assets divided by current liabilities. The firm’s ability to use its available resources (assets) to cover its current obligations (liabilities).

Debt – An amount owed for funds borrowed. It is a deferred payment or series of payments to be paid in the future, oftentimes with interest.

Debt Instruments – A documented, binding obligation that provides funds to an entity in return for a promise from the entity to repay a lender or investor in accordance with terms of a contract. This can include a bond or a deposit.

Debt Service – The amount of payment due at regular intervals (usually monthly, quarterly, or annually) to meet a debt.

Default – Failure to fulfill an obligation. Often times used in reference to the failure to meet a loan’s terms.

Deposit – A sum of money placed in a bank or other financial institution.

Deposit Agreement – An agreement outlining the terms of a transaction that transfers funds (deposit) to another party, typically a financial institution, as collateral.

Dividend – A payment made by a corporation to its shareholders (typically quarterly), usually as a distribution of profits for their investment in the company.

Due Diligence – The process of evaluating the opportunities and risks of a particular investment. This includes verifying sources of income, the accuracy of financial statements, the value of assets that will serve as collateral, the tax status of the borrower, and all other relevant legal and financial information.

Equity – The value of shares issued by a company to stockholders or ownership of assets that may have liabilities attached to them. Equity can be measured by subtracting the liabilities from the value of the asset.

Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) – An investment fund traded on stock exchanges continuously throughout the day, much like stocks. This is typically held close to its net asset value, although deviations can occasionally occur.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) – An independent agency created by Congress to maintain stability and public confidence in the nation’s financial system by insuring deposits, examining and supervising financial institutions for safety and soundness and consumer protection, and managing receiverships.

Fiduciary Duty – A fundamental obligation to provide investment advice that always acts in the clients’ best interests. A person acting in a fiduciary capacity is held to a high standard of honesty and full disclosure in regard to the client and must not obtain a personal benefit at the expense of the client.

Fiduciary Responsibility – A relationship in which one person owes a fiduciary duty to another, most often a client.

Fixed Assets – Long-term assets that cannot be quickly converted into cash, such as property.

Fixed Income – Income from an investment that is fixed at a particular figure and does not vary or rise with the rate of inflation. The return is typically paid on a set schedule.

Grant – Money that is gifted by a government or other organization for a particular purpose. It is not expected to be repaid.

Guarantee – A formal pledge to pay another person’s debt or to perform another person’s obligation in the case that they default or are not able to.

Interest – As a borrower, it is a charge for borrowed money which is typically set a percentage of the amount borrowed. Alternatively, as a lender, it is the profit in goods or money that is made on invested capital.

Investment Intermediary – The middleman between two parties in a financial transaction, such as a commercial bank, investment banks, mutual funds, and pension funds.

Liability – Financial debts or obligations.

Limited Liability Company (LLC) – A business form that combines the characteristics of a corporation with the pass-through tax treatment of a partnership. In an LLC, the members of the company cannot be held personally liable for the debts or liabilities of the company.

Liquidity – Measures a company’s ability to meet short term obligations. It can be assessed by evaluating a company’s current ratio and working capital.

Loan – Funds provided to an organization with a commitment to repay the principal.

Loan Loss Reserve – Funds retained by a firm as risk mitigation towards loan default.

Market Rate – A generally agreed upon “going rate” that is charged for a financial instrument, good, service, etc. in a free market.

Net Worth – The value of all financial and non-financial assets minus the value of all liabilities.

Principal – The amount of an initial investment, deposit, loan, etc.

Private Debt – An asset class that includes any debt held by or extended to private companies, such as in the case of the sale of equity shares.

Promissory Note – A legal document in which one party promises to pay a determinate sum of money to the other, either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms.

Quick Ratio – Also known as an Acid Test, it is the sum of the firm’s cash, marketable securities, and accounts receivable, divided by its current liabilities. This illustrates the ability of a firm to meet its current liabilities.

Registered Investment Advisor (RIA) – A person or firm who advises individuals on investments and manages their portfolios. RIAs have a fiduciary duty, or obligation to act in their best interest, to their clients.

Return on Investment (ROI) – Earnings before interest and taxes (or profit) divided by the amount invested. (EBIT / Investment = ROI)

Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) A U.S. government agency that oversees securities transactions, activities of financial professionals and mutual fund trading to prevent fraud and intentional deception.

Term – The length of time until a loan or other obligation is due.

Venture Capital – Growth equity capital or loan capital provided by private investors (the venture capitalists) or specialized financial institutions (development finance houses or venture capital firms) for new or growing businesses. Also called risk capital. The venture capital firm or individual investor gives funding to the startup company in exchange for equity in the startup.

Other Finance Terms

B Corporation – A business that has been certified by the nonprofit, B Lab, to meet rigorous standards of social and environmental performance, accountability, and transparency.

Entrepreneur – A person who organizes and manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative, responsibility, and risk.

Philanthropy – The desire to promote the welfare of others, often expressed through financial gifts or acts of kindness.

Small Business Administration (SBA) – The SBA is a U.S. government agency established in 1953 to promote the economy in general by providing assistance to small businesses. One of the largest functions of the SBA is the provision of counseling to aid individuals in trying to start and grow businesses.

By Impact Investing

Positive and Negative Investment Screening Explained

If you have explored socially responsible investing (SRI), then you might also be familiar with the concept of investment screening.

Socially responsible investing, a form of impact investing, is a strategy used to align investments with social goals.

Investors understand that their money can produce positive outcomes in more than just a financial sense by achieving both financial growth and positive social change. Investment screening is used to filter out companies or organizations that do not meet investors’ standards, and instead allocate capital to those that do.

Positive and negative investment screening is used to distinguish between different organizations based on how restrictive investors would like their investments to be. Positive screening identifies and focuses investments into companies that are considered top performers based upon chosen criteria. Alternatively, negative screening looks to exclude companies that perform poorly on environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) criteria and removes them from investment portfolios. Understanding some of the different approaches to socially responsible investments can help you to learn how your portfolio is managed, and which investment strategies best fit your objectives.

What is Impact Investing?

Impact investing is a way to invest your money with the intent to bring about some socially desirable outcome with the expectation of a financial return. 

CNote specifically defines impact investing as deploying capital with the aim of creating some measurable positive social outcomes with the expectation of financial returns. Like your vote, your dollar is powerful. Whenever you give money to an institution, whether in the form of an investment or a transaction, you are supporting their mission – whether you morally agree with it or not. It’s that simple.

Of course, there is some subjectivity when it comes to what it means to do good. Something that one investor believes to be a good cause may not be important to another investor. Overall, the goals of impact investing generally reflect popular social and political opinions of the time. In the mid-twentieth century, this included a focus on civil rights, women’s suffrage, and anti-war efforts. Nowadays, common causes people look to support through the power of their investments are environmentally sustainable initiatives, increasing economic opportunity for minority or underrepresented communities and ending world hunger.

There are three key components to impact investing: investment with the intention to do good and the expectation of financial return all while creating measurable impact. Measuring the impact of one’s investment is a central tenet of impact investing. If you are investing to make a difference, you should utilize measures to understand the true impact your investment is having.

What is Socially Responsible Investing?

Socially responsible investing (SRI) is a strategy that considers specific investor values when choosing organizations to invest in.  Sometimes referred to as Sustainable, Responsible, Impact Investing, SRI Investing involves investing in companies that are engaged in ethical and socially conscious fields. Also known as ‘green investing’ or ‘ethical investing,’ SRI has become a popular way for investors to support causes they believe in while earning positive financial returns.

Much like impact investing, there is a level of subjectivity when it comes to socially responsible investments. In general, SRI indexes or mutual funds look to invest in organizations that support environmental and social causes. They typically avoid companies that deal with alcohol, gambling, tobacco, and weapons.

Why Engage in Socially Responsible Investing Practices?

People invest in SRI indexes and funds for a variety of reasons. An investor may be driven by strong personal values that guide their investment decisions. If investors are dedicated to green living, they may want to invest in companies that pass ESG criteria for green companies. A company or investor may pride themselves in supporting organizations that celebrate diversity. They may pursue investments in companies that champion these initiatives as a way of improving their own ESG profile.

We are seeing more often than ever before that clients and shareholders are demanding that companies take action to improve their own ESG standing, like through investing in SRI opportunities. Shareholder activism has forced organizations to reevaluate their own practices and invest in causes that their shareholders value.

Does SRI Result In Lower Financial Returns?

You may have heard that committing to socially responsible investing may result in lower returns. However, that is often not the case.

Consider the Domini 400 Social Index, which is essentially the S&P 500 for socially responsible investing. In a study from Morningstar and MSCI that compared the index total returns from the year 1990 to 2008, it was determined that the return and risk characteristics were nearly identical for both indices. In fact, the Domini 400 Social Index slightly outperformed the S&P 500.

As the tide changes towards more socially responsible investing, companies are learning that raising their ESG standards can earn them more investors and a stronger client base. Consumers are looking for companies that reflect their values now more than ever. Socially responsible investing has built a bridge between enacting positive change and growing wealth.

The Difference Between SRI and Impact Investing

While SRI and impact investing both seek to enact social change and produce wealth, they differ in their need for measurable change.SRI is concerned with deploying investment dollars in a way that is responsible and positive. Impact investing requires that the change be, as the name implies, impactful. A good way to understand the difference between SRI and impact investing is that SRI can simply stop at “do no harm” while impact investing seeks to proactively “do good” with investments.

Screening and Socially Responsible Investing

While impact investors seek to do measurable good, socially responsible investors seek to support causes that align with their views and avoid causes that they find undesirable. This is done through a process called screening.

Investment screening is the process of determining whether an organization’s values align with that of the investors. In today’s market, screens help identify firms based on environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) criteria.

When evaluating companies based on environmental factors, a screen may take into account the amount of waste they produce, greenhouse gas and carbon outputs, raw materials used in production and how materials are sourced.

Companies evaluated based on social standards will typically look at the health and safety of workers, gender equality within the company, and diversity within the workplace. However, sometimes the assessment of socially responsible practices does not stop at the company themselves; Some fund managers will even evaluate the workplace practices of suppliers to ensure that they pass the screens as well.

Governance standards refer to how the business conducts itself. These screens will typically test for corruption, instances of retaliation, scandals, or even the compensation differences between executive members and entry-level workers.

There are two forms of investment screening: positive screening and negative screening. Screens are essentially filters that define what is an acceptable investment. They help to identify companies that may have risks that are not recognized by traditional fiscal standards. For example, if an analyst would like to screen for companies that are cruelty-free, this would set a clear screen parameter for investment opportunities.

The History of Screening

Investment screening was originally used by religious investors who were concerned about investing in industries that they found sinful. This was meant to exclude companies that were involved in industries like weapons manufacturing, alcohol and tobacco companies, and gambling operations.

Eventually, this shifted from just being utilized by religious investors to also being used investors who were interested in using their money to advance their social beliefs. This especially included women’s right to vote and civil rights in the early 20th century.

Investors also used screening to divert funds from companies that they found did not represent their values. In the 70’s and 80’s, investors used divestment as a way to negatively screen companies that benefitted from South Africa’s Apartheid policy. If a company benefitted from apartheid, investors pulled all of their investments out of the company. The lack of economic support helped to aid in the breakdown of apartheid.

What is Negative Screening?

Negative screening, or exclusionary screening, is one of the most basic methods of separating socially responsible investments from those that are likely to have a negative effect on society.

Negative screening is much less restrictive than positive screening. It simply excludes investments in companies that actively work against the investor’s values, such as organizations with a history of international bribery or corruption. Effectively, this process works to remove investments in entities that are deemed as having a negative impact on society or the environment from the investor’s portfolio. For this reason, negative screens help to embody the “do no harm” initiative of impact investing.

Early socially responsible investors used negative screens to weed out companies in ‘sin industries’, such as alcohol or gambling. The negative screening process has evolved to also exclude companies that do not meet diversity standards, emit large amounts of greenhouse gases, or engage in corrupt business practices.

Advantages

Negative screening is the most widely used process of identifying targeted investments for a reason; it’s incredibly inclusive.

Investors hesitant to adopt SRI may consider negative screening as it does not require companies to go above and beyond to be included in an investment portfolio. It weeds out the worst of the worst based on the particular screening criteria used and determines the rest of the companies to be acceptable. This can be beneficial to investors who are worried that SRI may be too exclusive.

Negative screens can also prevent investments into specific countries. Many exclusionary funds will exclude government bonds from countries that are known as human rights abusers. This not only prevents you from supporting practices that you find unacceptable, but it can also prevent you from investing in governments that are particularly egregious.

Drawbacks

One of the largest criticisms of negative screening is that it doesn’t work to support investments that align with an investor’s values. Negative screens work solely on eliminating investments that go against investor values. They do not place companies that support investor values at any particular advantage. By simply avoiding companies who actively work against investor values, negative screens do little to elevate the companies that actively do good. It is widely thought to have no tangible impact, as another investor (that is not focused on SRI) will likely invest in those stocks.

Examples

The most basic form of a negative screen is to avoid investments in ‘sin’ industries. This is also one of the earliest forms of negative screening. In the 1700’s, religious investors in the U.S. refused to place investments in tobacco, alcohol or gambling ventures. Even today, there are funds that screen based on specific religious doctrines.

Another example of a negative screen would be to screen for companies that have had any sexual harassment allegations in the past six years. Assuming that the fund is regularly rebalanced, any company that has not had a sexual harassment allegation in the past six years would be included or remain in the fund. A company that has had a sexual harassment allegation would be eliminated from the fund entirely.

What is Positive Screening?

Sometimes a fund manager may find that negative screening tactics may leave quite a few investments to choose from. This is where positive screening can be helpful.

Positive screening, or as it is sometimes referred to, ‘best-in-class screening’, is a process that identifies companies that are actively making contributions to social or environmental change. This enables investors to screen for and support practices that they find impactful.

Positive screening techniques work to identify and highlight organizations that are actively functioning to further environmentally sustainable and positive social practices, rather than simply avoiding bad behavior. Companies shown to have a positive impact are supported, while those who simply meet the status quo may fail the screen.

Advantages

Positive screening often looks to include only the best companies in a given impact category in the fund or portfolio. 

Best-in-class screening also encourages companies to compete with each other for investment dollars. When investment funds are based on the environmental, social or governance performance of companies, this incentivizes companies to compete with one another to create more impactful change. Positive screening not only rewards companies that do well, but it encourages industry peers to further advance their positively impactful corporate practices as well.

Drawbacks

The one major downside of positive screening is that it can be too exclusive. Investors interested in diversifying their portfolio may have trouble doing so through a positive screen. Depending on how rigorous their screening process is, it can sometimes lead to just a few companies making the cut. However, if the screen is too lenient, it can allow for companies that aren’t necessarily committed to the given cause squeaking through. This can make the positive screen feel like a moot point altogether.

Examples

Many investors are indicating that it is not enough to simply avoid harmful investments. They are interested in investing in companies that actively support their values. A common positive investment screen is for companies that create a certain amount of clean revenue. For a screen that required at least 75% clean revenue production, then only companies that met that hurdle would make the cut.

How Does a Fund Manager Screen Investments?

Because screening is subjective to the investor’s values, finding a fund or portfolio that closely matches your values is essential. But how does a fund manager actually screen its investments?

The screening process is usually implemented in one of two ways: a third-party investment manager or the use of standard restriction screens from a third-party data vendor. In essence, a firm will either outsource the screening process or they will do it themselves based on third-party data.

A firm will audit funds or portfolios at specific intervals, often quarterly or annually. Investments that do not meet the screening criteria at the time of the audit are removed from the fund or portfolio altogether.

Investors must be careful to review the screening criteria closely. A fund may say that they use environmental, social or corporate governance screens, but they may not be as rigorous as an investor would like. Understanding which causes are important to the investor and how restrictive the investments should be is important when considering a firm’s screening methods.

Is One Form of Screening Better Than the Other?

There is no one form of screening that is inherently better than the other. Because positive and negative screening works in two different ways, it is widely agreed that a combination of both methods will lend itself to the most well-rounded screening process.

It is important that the investor has a clear idea of their SRI goals and personal delineations for success to be sure that the chosen investments align well with those ideals.

When Screens Get It Wrong

Just because a company passes a screen doesn’t mean they are perfect.

Screens are merely tools that are used to help a fund manager or research department quantify what it means to be a socially responsible investment. This does not always mean that the screens are particularly rigorous, or that the company being screened is entirely ethical. A company could pass on one screen but fail another.

For example, consider a fund manager that is tasked with identifying companies that are considered low waste by environmental criteria. A company may meet the low waste requirement but also be in the midst of a sexual harassment scandal. This company would pass the positive screen. If the fund manager also had a negative screen to exclude companies based on sexual harassment claims, this company would fail. It all depends on what the investment opportunities are being screened for.

Final Thoughts

Socially responsible investing attracts investors that are not only interested in turning a profit; They are also looking to support their community, the environment, and causes that they are passionate about to thrive. Investment screens help analysts identify which companies will gain investor’s support. They offer a standard by which investors can judge companies and hold companies accountable for their values and actions. Understanding screens can help you identify investments and help you feel confident that you are supporting a good cause.